Lasik Eye Surgery: Its Overview, Indication & Complications

Overview

LASIK (Laser-Assisted In-situ Keratomileusis) is a surgical method to correct certain vision disorders. This surgery is used to reduce or eliminate the need for eyeglasses or corrective lenses.

The LASIK surgery is advised to a person in case when other treatments like eye drops, eye exercises, etc. do not prove to be effective on fixing eye problems.

In this surgery, cornea is given the correct shape with the help of laser. The main aim of this surgery is to focus the light rays exactly on the retina neither beyond nor short of retina so that a clearer and sharp vision can be achieved.

To correct the shape of cornea the surgeon remove some tissues from the middle layer of cornea. To reach middle layer, a flap is made in cornea using microkeratome blade or laser. This flap is laid back after the surgery.

 

Working Of Human Eye

 

When light rays reflect from an object and enter our eye, we are able to see that object. In a normal eye these light rays enters from cornea i.e. the transparent front layer of eye.

Cornea bends the light rays in such a manner so that they fall on the retina and forms the same image exactly on the retina. From here optic nerve receives the information and transfer it to brain which interpret the vision.

Sometimes cornea losses its capability to bend the light rays accurately and in such cases image is not formed on the retina and hence the person suffers from blurred vision.

LASIK surgery is used to correct this vision problem by reshaping the shape of cornea so that it bends the light rays accurately.

 

Indication

 

LASIK eye surgery is recommended to people with following problems:

  • Nearsightedness (Myopia): Person with this problem can see nearby objects clearly but have a blurry vision for far objects.

  • Farsightedness (Hyperopia): person with this problem have trouble seeing nearby objects. Generally Far sight is clear but is some cases, its blurry.

  • Astigmatism: In this condition, cornea is unevenly curved or flattened. This causes blurry vision. Near as well as far sight is affected.

  • Failure Of Other Measures To Correct The Problem Of Vision: A person who has a problem with his/her eye,  adopts all methods like eye drops, exercise of eyes etc. If still no benefit comes from these techniques, then only the doctor recommends LASIK surgery.

Procedure:

 

Pre-procedure

 

Since, LASIK surgery is associated with the most sensitive part of the body. Therefore it is done with great care because any kind of negligence can put the life of the person in darkness.

Prior to starting this surgery, the doctors examine the health of the person thoroughly, and explain him/her the detail of this procedure and precautions which are as follows:

  • Eye screening: Before the LASIK surgery, the eyes of the person are thoroughly examined. Including the detection of the real condition of the cornea like examine the thickness of the cornea, pressure of the eye, dispersion of the pupil, etc.

  • Do not wear contact lenses: If laser surgery is to be done on someone who wears contact lenses, then it is advisable not to wear contact lenses before this surgery.

  • Do not wear any makeup on the eyes: Before LASIK surgery it is advised to avoid any kind of eye makeup.

Procedure:

Overall, it takes about 15-30 minutes to complete the procedure of LASIK surgery. Apart from this, the entire process is done through laser, so there is no rigging in this process.

Step By Step Process of LASIK Surgery:

Step 1: Numbing Eyes With Eye Drop

Starting the laser surgery, the eyes of the person are numbed with the eye drop. So that he/she does not have any inconvenience during this entire process. Certain medicines are given to the patient so that he/she can relax.

Step 2: Preventing The Eyelids From Blinking

Surgeon prevents the eyelids of the person from blinking with the device called lid speculum.

Step 3: Access Cornea

Surgeons make a thin flap in the front layer of cornea, with the help of a small blade or cutting laser. A small hinged flap is made which can be folded temporarily to access the middle layer of cornea which is to be reshaped.

Step 4: Reshaping Of Cornea

Cornea is given a new shape after removing some tissues from middle layer of cornea, for which a device is used, which is called excimer laser. After reshaping, flap is placed back to cover the operated part.

 

Post-procedure:

 

As explained earlier, LASIK surgery is done very carefully. Even after this surgery some tasks are done, which are very important. Some of these are as follows:

  • Stay In Recovery Room: After the end of LASIK surgery, the person is taken to the recovery room. Where he/she has to stay for about an hour.

  • Investigating The Eyes: The person’s eyes are examined again in the waiting room. In which the surgeons ensures that the Surgery has been done correctly.

  • Eye Drop: Because, after LASIK surgery, there may be some problems in the person’s eyes such as irritation, watery eyes, itching. To deal with these problems, eye drops are given to the patient.

  • Pain Medications: patients generally feel pain after the surgery so, pain medications are given to keep the patient comfortable after surgery.

  • Specific glasses: After laser surgery, a special kind of glasses are given to the patient to protect eyes from bright light, sunlight etc.

Complications:

However, a lot of people have benefited from LASIK surgery. But there are some risks of this surgery, which are as follows.

  • Under Corrections And Over Corrections: Sometimes patients do not get the expected result. Undercorrection happens when only the tissues that are too little are removed, patient will need another LASIK procedure to be done within a year. This generally happens in case of nearsightedness. Sometimes excess tissue is removed from the eye and it is called ‘overcorrection’ and this is difficult to fix.

  • Astigmatism: This happens by uneven removal of tissue from the cornea. This may require another surgery or use of glasses or contact lenses.

  • Infection: Flap removal and folding may cause some complications like infections and excess tears.

  • Vision Problems: After surgery, patient might feel difficulty in seeing at night and even will see halos around light. Problem of double vision can also occur.

  • Dry Eyes: This surgery reduce tear production and patient may feel dry eyes for almost upto 6 months as they heal. This may cause vision problem. Doctors prescribe them eye drops during the healing process.

    In some cases this drying is excess and patient requires another process to prevent tears drying away from the eye surface.

  • Loss Of Vision: this happens very rarely. If the process is not done properly, then vision loss is possible. Sometimes patient cannot see as clear as before the surgery. Hence, it is advised to select an experienced surgeon for the treatment.

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